|地区：||United States of America 美国|
|风格：||硬波普 Hard Bop, 自由爵士 Free Jazz, 先锋爵士 Avant-Garde Jazz, 后波普 Post-Bop, 调式爵士 Modal Jazz|
无论作为萨克斯演奏家、作曲家和乐队领导者，他对六十至八十年代的爵士乐都产生深远的影响。他引入爵士的即兴演奏观念为钢琴手、小号手、吉他手以及萨克斯手所学习吸收。John Coltrane全名John William Coltrane，出生于北卡罗莱那州的哈姆莱特，在他外祖父家长大。在学校时他学的是单簧管，学校的乐团领队建议其母亲给他买一支中音萨克斯管。1939年，他的祖父和父亲相继去世，上完高中后他就搬到费城与母亲同住，这时期接受了一些短暂的音乐学习，然而他真正的音乐学习还是从加入职业演奏开始的。
1949年到1951年期间他加入Dizzy Gillespie的大乐队，正式从中音萨克斯转向次中音萨克斯演奏。五十年代初期，Coltrane还不为公众所知，但他在1955年与Miles Davis的合作录音中已经形成了自己十分强力的演奏风格，到他1967年去世为止其风格还在不断开拓发展过程中。Coltrane的音色粗砺、尖锐、巨大而厚重。许多萨克斯手演奏时在高音区会音色变薄、低音区时又会不清晰和不够敏捷。而Coltrane的音色在任何音区始终都是饱满和有穿透力的。此外，他的演奏充满紧迫感，音乐听上去也十分严肃，几乎就没有一丝的幽默。
纵观其音乐生涯，他的唱片显示了一种一贯的力量和灵感，即使在大师中间也是很少见的。与Charlie Parker并称，Coltrane是最具一贯性和演奏激烈的那类爵士独奏者。五十年代中期以后，John Coltrane与Sonny Rollins成为纽约最抢手的硬波普风格次中音萨克斯演奏家。
1957年他出现在21张重要的唱片录音中，与Thelonious Monk一起进行了短暂而富有有成果的合作。同年他回到费城，戒掉了吸食海洛因的毒瘾，开始拓展其个人风格（John Coltrane后来提到《A Love Supreme》这张专辑就是指一种精神上的觉醒），而且组建其经典的四重奏演奏形式。在一家名为the Red ooster的俱乐部，他发掘了钢琴手Mccoy Tyner和贝司手Jimmy Garrison。在为Prestige公司录制了几张专辑以后，Coltrane转签Atlantic唱片公司。1959年，他录下了《Giant Step》专辑，这是张非常受欢迎的经典之作，不过它提出了一个问题：硬波普再往前该如何发展？Coltrane知道答案，在完成与Miles Davis的第二轮合作以后，他组建了由Mccoy Tyner、Jimmy Garrison、Elvin Jones和自己组成的最著名的四重奏。从此爵士乐揭开新的一幕。
出于商业方面的考虑，Impulse公司对Coltrane的作品总是推迟出版，看过他现场演出的乐迷们对其音乐上的发展变化之大十分震惊。Coltrane在《A love Supreme》专辑中的演奏与现场相比要催眠和平静好多，然而还能称得上是经典。之后，Coltrane的作品变得越来越野性。由于对新领域的无休止的追逐探索，导致乐队的解散。Rashied Ali代替了Elvin Jones，Alice Coltrane取代了Mccoy Tyner，Coltrane对新的萨克斯手尤为感兴趣，在专辑《Ascension》中，他给予Archie Shepp、Pharoah Sanders、Marion Brown和John Tchicai许多演奏空间。Eric Dolphy的演奏风格与Coltrane有很大不同，但他在六十年代早期却频繁作为Coltrane四重奏的一位客座乐手，并和Coltrane于1961年一块巡演。1967的《Interstellar Space》双重奏专辑，Coltrane的次中音萨克斯与Rashied Ali的鼓激烈鏖战，为后人发展提供了一个十分诱人的新暗示。
1967年Coltrane的去世使得先锋爵士失去了一位精神上的父亲。七十年代Fusion爵士商业性的成功使得他的光芒有些黯淡，八十年代传统爵士的复兴又使得Coltrane硬波普时期的作品大受关注。尽管Coltrane一再强调年轻的萨克斯手们不要学他，但是他死后其风格反而成了一种主流。从Michael Brecker的伯克利学校音乐风格到欧洲的Jan Garbarek，甚至像Andy Sheppard这样的新秀要建立起自己的观众群都找不到其他更好的演奏方式。不过，Coltrane的音乐确实有很大的听众群，尤其在年轻的摇滚乐迷中也十分受欢迎。毫无疑问，Coltrane确实是一位真正的爵士乐使者，他的音乐来自于其内心深处，很少有爵士乐音乐家能达到那样登峰造极的境界，拥有其超凡脱俗的乐器演奏技巧。
Despite a relatively brief career (he first came to notice as a sideman at age 29 in 1955, formally launched a solo career at 33 in 1960, and was dead at 40 in 1967), saxophonist John Coltrane was among the most important, and most controversial, figures in jazz. It seems amazing that his period of greatest activity was so short, not only because he recorded prolifically, but also because, taking advantage of his fame, the record companies that recorded him as a sideman in the 1950s frequently reissued those recordings under his name and there has been a wealth of posthumously released material as well. Since Coltrane was a protean player who changed his style radically over the course of his career, this has made for much confusion in his discography and in appreciations of his playing. There remains a critical divide between the adherents of his earlier, more conventional (if still highly imaginative) work and his later, more experimental work. No one, however, questions Coltrane's almost religious commitment to jazz or doubts his significance in the history of the music.
Coltrane was the son of John R. Coltrane, a tailor and amateur musician, and Alice (Blair) Coltrane. Two months after his birth, his maternal grandfather, the Reverend William Blair, was promoted to presiding elder in the A.M.E. Zion Church and moved his family, including his infant grandson, to High Point, NC, where Coltrane grew up. Shortly after he graduated from grammar school in 1939, his father, his grandparents, and his uncle died, leaving him to be raised in a family consisting of his mother, his aunt, and his cousin. His mother worked as a domestic to support the family. The same year, he joined a community band in which he played clarinet and E flat alto horn; he took up the alto saxophone in his high school band. During World War II, his mother, aunt, and cousin moved north to New Jersey to seek work, leaving him with family friends; in 1943, when he graduated from high school, he too headed north, settling in Philadelphia. Eventually, the family was reunited there.
While taking jobs outside music, Coltrane briefly attended the Ornstein School of Music and studied at Granoff Studios. He also began playing in local clubs. In 1945, he was drafted into the navy and stationed in Hawaii. He never saw combat, but he continued to play music and, in fact, made his first recording with a quartet of other sailors on July 13, 1946. A performance of Tadd Dameron's &Hot House,& it was released in 1993 on the Rhino Records anthology The Last Giant. Coltrane was discharged in the summer of 1946 and returned to Philadelphia. That fall, he began playing in the Joe Webb Band. In early 1947, he switched to the King Kolax Band. During the year, he switched from alto to tenor saxophone. One account claims that this was as the result of encountering alto saxophonist Charlie Parker and feeling the better-known musician had exhausted the possibilities on the instrument; another says that the switch occurred simply because Coltrane next joined a band led by Eddie &Cleanhead& Vinson, who was an alto player, forcing Coltrane to play tenor. He moved on to Jimmy Heath's band in mid-1948, staying with the band, which evolved into the Howard McGhee All Stars until early 1949, when he returned to Philadelphia. That fall, he joined a big band led by Dizzy Gillespie, remaining until the spring of 1951, by which time the band had been trimmed to a septet. On March 1, 1951, he took his first solo on record during a performance of &We Love to Boogie& with Gillespie.
At some point during this period, Coltrane became a heroin addict, which made him more difficult to employ. He played with various bands, mostly around Philadelphia, during the early '50s, his next important job coming in the spring of 1954, when Johnny Hodges, temporarily out of the Duke Ellington band, hired him. But he was fired because of his addiction in September 1954. He returned to Philadelphia, where he was playing, when he was hired by Miles Davis a year later. His association with Davis was the big break that finally established him as an important jazz musician. Davis, a former drug addict himself, had kicked his habit and gained recognition at the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1955, resulting in a contract with Columbia Records and the opportunity to organize a permanent band, which, in addition to him and Coltrane, consisted of pianist Red Garland, bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer &Philly& Joe Jones. This unit immediately began to record extensively, not only because of the Columbia contract, but also because Davis had signed with the major label before fulfilling a deal with jazz independent Prestige Records that still had five albums to run. The trumpeter's Columbia debut, 'Round About Midnight, which he immediately commenced recording, did not appear until March 1957. The first fruits of his association with Coltrane came in April 1956 with the release of The New Miles Davis Quintet (aka Miles), recorded for Prestige on November 16, 1955. During 1956, in addition to his recordings for Columbia, Davis held two marathon sessions for Prestige to fulfill his obligation to the label, which released the material over a period of time under the titles Cookin' (1957), Relaxin' (1957), Workin' (1958), and Steamin' (1961).
Coltrane's association with Davis inaugurated a period when he began to frequently record as a sideman. Davis may have been trying to end his association Prestige, but Coltrane began appearing on many of the label's sessions. After he became better known in the 1960s, Prestige and other labels began to repackage this work under his name, as if he had been the leader, a process that has continued to the present day. (Prestige was acquired by Fantasy Records in 1972, and many of the recordings in which Coltrane participated have been reissued on Fantasy's Original Jazz Classics [OJC] imprint.)
Coltrane tried and failed to kick heroin in the summer of 1956, and in October, Davis fired him, though the trumpeter had relented and taken him back by the end of November. Early in 1957, Coltrane formally signed with Prestige as a solo artist, though he remained in the Davis band and also continued to record as a sideman for other labels. In April, Davis fired him again. This may have given him the impetus finally to kick his drug habit, and freed of the necessity of playing gigs with Davis, he began to record even more frequently. On May 31, 1957, he finally made his recording debut as a leader, putting together a pickup band consisting of trumpeter Johnny Splawn, baritone saxophonist Sahib Shihab, pianists Mal Waldron and Red Garland (on different tracks), bassist Paul Chambers, and drummer Al &Tootie& Heath. They cut an album Prestige titled simply Coltrane upon release in September 1957. (It has since been reissued under the title First Trane.)
In June 1957, Coltrane joined the Thelonious Monk Quartet, consisting of Monk on piano, Wilbur Ware on bass, and Shadow Wilson on drums. During this period, he developed a technique of playing several notes at once, and his solos began to go on longer. In August, he recorded material belatedly released on the Prestige albums Lush Life (1960) and The Last Trane (1965), as well as the material for John Coltrane With the Red Garland Trio, released later in the year. (It was later reissued under the title Traneing In.) But Coltrane's second album to be recorded and released contemporaneously under his name alone was cut in September for Blue Note Records. This was Blue Train, featuring trumpeter Lee Morgan, trombonist Curtis Fuller, pianist Kenny Drew, and the Miles Davis rhythm section of Chambers and &Philly& Joe Jones; it was released in December 1957. That month, Coltrane rejoined Davis, playing in what was now a sextet that also featured Cannonball Adderley. In January 1958, he led a recording session for Prestige that produced tracks later released on Lush Life, The Last Trane, and The Believer (1964). In February and March, he recorded Davis' album Milestones..., released later in 1958. In between the sessions, he cut his third album to be released under his name alone, Soultrane, issued in September by Prestige. Also in March 1958, he cut tracks as a leader that would be released later on the Prestige collection Settin' the Pace (1961). In May, he again recorded for Prestige as a leader, though the results would not be heard until the release of Black Pearls in 1964.
Coltrane appeared as part of the Miles Davis group at the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1958. The band's set was recorded and released in 1964 on an LP also featuring a performance by Thelonious Monk as Miles & Monk at Newport. In 1988, Columbia reissued the material on an album called Miles & Coltrane. The performance inspired a review in Down Beat, the leading jazz magazine, that was an early indication of the differing opinions on Coltrane that would be expressed throughout the rest of his career and long after his death. The review referred to his &angry tenor,& which, it said, hampered the solidarity of the Davis band. The review led directly to an article published in the magazine on October 16, 1958, in which critic Ira Gitler defended the saxophonist and coined the much-repeated phrase &sheets of sound& to describe his playing.
Coltrane's next Prestige session as a leader occurred later in July 1958 and resulted in tracks later released on the albums Standard Coltrane (1962), Stardust (1963), and Bahia (1965). All of these tracks were later compiled on a reissue called The Stardust Session. He did a final session for Prestige in December 1958, recording tracks later released on The Believer, Stardust, and Bahia. This completed his commitment to the label, and he signed to Atlantic Records, doing his first recording for his new employers on January 15, 1959, with a session on which he was co-billed with vibes player Milt Jackson, though it did not appear until 1961 with the LP Bags and Trane.
In March and April 1959, Coltrane participated with the Davis group on the album Kind of Blue. Released on August 17, 1959, this landmark album known for its &modal& playing (improvisations based on scales or &modes,& rather than chords) became one of the best-selling and most-acclaimed recordings in the history of jazz. In between the sessions for the album, Coltrane began recording what would be his Atlantic Records debut, Giant Steps, released in early 1960. The album, consisting entirely of Coltrane compositions, in a sense marked his real debut as a leading jazz performer, even though the 33-year-old musician had released three previous solo albums and made numerous other recordings. His next Atlantic album, Coltrane Jazz, was mostly recorded in November and December 1959 and released in February 1961. In April 1960, he finally left the Davis band and formally launched his solo career, beginning an engagement at the Jazz Gallery in New York, accompanied by pianist Steve Kuhn (soon replaced by McCoy Tyner), bassist Steve Davis, and drummer Pete La Roca (later replaced by Billy Higgins and then Elvin Jones). During this period, he increasingly played soprano saxophone as well as tenor.
In October 1960, Coltrane recorded a series of sessions for Atlantic that would produce material for several albums, including a final track used on Coltrane Jazz and tunes used on My Favorite Things (March 1961), Coltrane Plays the Blues (July 1962), and Coltrane's Sound (June 1964). His soprano version of &My Favorite Things,& from the Richard Rodgers/Oscar Hammerstein II musical The Sound of Music, would become a signature song for him. During the winter of 1960-1961, bassist Reggie Workman replaced Steve Davis in his band and saxophone and flute player Eric Dolphy, gradually became a member of the group.
In the wake of the commercial success of &My Favorite Things,& Coltrane's star rose, and he was signed away from Atlantic as the flagship artist of the newly formed Impulse! Records label, an imprint of ABC-Paramount, though in May he cut a final album for Atlantic, Olé (February 1962). The following month, he completed his Impulse! debut, Africa/Brass. By this time, his playing was frequently in a style alternately dubbed &avant-garde,& &free,& or &The New Thing.& Like Ornette Coleman, he played seemingly formless, extended solos that some listeners found tremendously impressive, and others decried as noise. In November 1961, John Tynan, writing in Down Beat, referred to Coltrane's playing as &anti-jazz.& That month, however, Coltrane recorded one of his most celebrated albums, Live at the Village Vanguard, an LP paced by the 16-minute improvisation &Chasin' the Trane.&
Between April and June 1962, Coltrane cut his next Impulse! studio album, another release called simply Coltrane when it appeared later in the year. Working with producer Bob Thiele, he began to do extensive studio sessions, far more than Impulse! could profitably release at the time, especially with Prestige and Atlantic still putting out their own archival albums. But the material would serve the label well after the saxophonist's untimely death. Thiele acknowledged that Coltrane's next three Impulse! albums to be released, Ballads, Duke Ellington and John Coltrane, and John Coltrane with Johnny Hartman (all 1963), were recorded at his behest to quiet the critics of Coltrane's more extreme playing. Impressions (1963), drawn from live and studio recordings made in 1962 and 1963, was a more representative effort, as was 1964's Live at Birdland, also a combination of live and studio tracks, despite its title. But Crescent, also released in 1964, seemed to find a middle ground between traditional and free playing, and was welcomed by critics. This trend was continued with 1965's A Love Supreme, one of Coltrane's best-loved albums, which earned him two Grammy nominations, for jazz composition and performance, and became his biggest-selling record. Also during the year, Impulse! released the standards collection The John Coltrane Quartet Plays... and another album of &free& playing, Ascension, as well as New Thing at Newport, a live album consisting of one side by Coltrane and the other by Archie Shepp.
1966 saw the release of the albums Kulu Se Mama and Meditations, Coltrane's last recordings to appear during his lifetime, though he had finished and approved release for his next album, Expression, the Friday before his death in July 1967. He died suddenly of liver cancer, entering the hospital on a Sunday and expiring in the early morning hours of the next day. He had left behind a considerable body of unreleased work that came out in subsequent years, including &Live& at the Village Vanguard Again! (1967), Om (1967), Cosmic Music (1968), Selflessness (1969), Transition (1969), Sun Ship (1971), Africa/Brass, Vol. 2 (1974), Interstellar Space (1974), and First Meditations (For Quartet) (1977), all on Impulse! Compilations and releases of archival live recordings brought him a series of Grammy nominations, including Best Jazz Performance for the Atlantic album The Coltrane Legacy in 1970; Best Jazz Performance, Group, and Best Jazz Performance, Soloist, for &Giant Steps& from the Atlantic album Alternate Takes in 1974; and Best Jazz Performance, Group, and Best Jazz Performance, Soloist, for Afro Blue Impressions in 1977. He won the 1981 Grammy for Best Jazz Performance, Soloist, for Bye Bye Blackbird, an album of recordings made live in Europe in 1962, and he was given the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992, 25 years after his death.
John Coltrane is sometimes described as one of jazz's most influential musicians, but one is hard put to find followers who actually play in his style. Rather, he is influential by example, inspiring musicians to experiment, take chances, and devote themselves to their craft. The controversy about his work has never died down, but partially as a result, his name lives on and his recordings continue to remain available and to be reissued frequently.
|02||A Love Supreme, Pt. 1: Acknowledgement||109757|
|03||My One and Only Love John Coltrane||104840|
|04||My Favorite Things||62897|
|06||Too young to go steady John Coltrane||59379|
|07||They Say It's Wonderful||52758|
|09||My Favorite Things John Coltrane 《海边的卡夫卡》 / 我喜爱的事物||29306|
|10||A Love Supreme, Pt. 2: Resolution||28614|