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Frédéric Chopin弗雷德里克·肖邦 / Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin

地区: Poland 波兰
风格: 室内乐 / 重奏 Chamber Music, 协奏曲 Concerto, 西方古典 Western Classical Music, 奏鸣曲 Sonata, 浪漫主义 Romanticism
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中 文 名 弗里德里克•弗朗索瓦•肖邦 
外 文 名 Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin 
别    名 钢琴诗人 
国    籍 波兰 
民    族 波兰人 
出 生 地 华沙 
出生日期 1810年3月1日 
逝世日期 1849年10月17日 
职    业 钢琴家、作曲家 
毕业院校 华沙国立音乐学院 
信    仰 天主教 
代表作品 《钢琴协奏曲》《叙事曲》《夜曲》《革命练习曲》 
血    型 O型 
星    座 双鱼座 
乐    派 浪漫主义
 
艺人资料
弗里德里克•弗朗索瓦•肖邦(F.F.Chopin 1810─1849),19世纪波兰作曲家、钢琴家。
1810年,肖邦出生于波兰;1817年开始创作;1818年登台演出;1822年至1829年在华沙国家音乐高等学校学习作曲和音乐理论。1829年起以作曲家和钢琴家的身份在欧洲巡演。后因华沙起义失败而定居巴黎,从事教学和创作。1849年,肖邦因肺结核逝世于巴黎。
肖邦是历史上最具影响力和最受欢迎的钢琴作曲家之一,是波兰音乐史上最重要的人物之一,欧洲19世纪浪漫主义音乐的代表人物。他的作品以波兰民间歌舞为基础,同时又深受巴赫影响,多以钢琴曲为主,被誉为“浪漫主义钢琴诗人”。
1810年,肖邦生于波兰首都华沙近郊热亚佐瓦沃拉,同年举家搬迁至华沙。
1816年,肖邦跟随著名的钢琴教师Wojciech先生学习钢琴。
1817年,肖邦创作出第一首作品B大调和g小调波兰舞曲。
1818年,Radziwi家庭宫殿中举行的慈善音乐会上,肖邦第一次登台,演奏了阿达尔伯特•吉罗维(Adalbert Gyrowetz)的作品,从此跻身波兰贵族的沙龙。
1822年,肖邦师从音乐教育家、作曲家约瑟夫•艾尔斯内尔(Józef Elsner),一年后公开演奏了德国作曲家费迪南德•里斯(Ferdinand Ries)的作品。
1826年,中学毕业后,肖邦在华沙音乐学院继续跟随约瑟夫•艾尔斯内尔学习钢琴演奏和作曲。
1829年后,肖邦以作曲家和钢琴家的身份在欧洲巡演,举行多场音乐会。
1830年,因波兰起义,肖邦离开故乡波兰移居到法国巴黎,开始以演奏、教学、作曲为生。
1837年,肖邦拒绝“俄皇陛下首席钢琴家”的职位和称号。
1848年,肖邦在巴黎举办他的最后一次音乐会,并受邀访问英格兰和苏格兰。
1849年10月17日,肖邦因肺结核于巴黎的家中去世。
创作风格
练习曲
肖邦创作的练习曲完全突破克莱门蒂、车尔尼、莫谢莱兹以来纯技术性练习曲的创作手法,不刻意突出华丽的炫技性,让音乐传递出更深刻的感情。
如《C大调练习曲》(作品10号之12“革命”)是肖邦1831年赴巴黎途中,在得知俄军入侵华沙后悲愤之余写下的。从技巧上看,这是一首左手跑动练习曲,但从右手壮烈的八度音旋律和左手狂风暴雨般的倾泻中却都不难看出作曲家当时内心情绪的极度激动。
圆舞曲
肖邦圆舞曲一向以优美、高雅、华丽而著称,但由于节奏变化复杂,因而并不适于实际的舞蹈。
从表达形式上来说可分为两大类别:一类是把实际的舞蹈加以理想化的作品,如《降E大调华丽大圆舞曲》,《降D大调“小狗”圆舞曲》; 另一类则为圆舞曲形式的抒情诗,如《升c小调圆舞曲》。
前奏曲
肖邦的前奏曲,可将风格迥异的个曲,自由结合为组曲。
创作于1836至1839年间的《前奏曲》Op.28,这二十四首前奏曲包含了各种不同长度、织度、风格、与多种作曲技巧于其中,调性是以不同的二十四个关系大小调作五度循环的排列,其音乐风格则可以归纳为练习曲、夜曲、玛祖卡、葬礼进行曲、谐谑曲、无穷动、歌谣体、幻想曲与即兴曲等类型。
谐谑曲
谐谑曲本意味着戏谑,但肖邦诙谐曲作品中却并无突出的戏谑,反而多忧郁和对个人的反抗,其实是包含着对自身的嘲笑与挖苦。
如创作于1831年的《b小调第一谐谑曲》,第一主题是暴风雨般的狂烈,第二乐章注明慢板处,有怪异的和弦。开头部分的不协和和弦带着突变的情绪出现,但中间段的“美梦”并未被这突如其来的一拳所击破。然后第二主题前半段的怪异和弦又相继出现,重新引入了不断挣扎、搏斗、渴求的情绪,直到结束仍未看到光明的前景。
马祖卡舞曲
肖邦的玛祖卡舞曲变化性地应用了民间节奏,并按照高度专业化的艺术标准进行再创作,在和声、调式等方面更有独出心裁的创造,他的乐曲中有着更精练的旋律,增加了跳跃感,在变化中赋予诗意。
《升c小调舞曲》是肖邦玛祖卡曲目里规模最大的,乐曲的开头受到巴赫的音乐风格影响,有着古典的感情,犹如管风琴的鸣响。封.隆兹评说:“开头好像为管风琴而作,却断然以沙龙风格结束,没有一首作品像这样被推敲过。”
夜曲
夜曲是肖邦自己创新的一种钢琴独奏体裁,它具有冲淡平和,寂静幽澜的特点,轻缓中偶尔透着那么一点点沉思。
《升C小调夜曲》,为三段体,第一段以柔声奏出暗淡的旋律,经种种转调后,情绪越来越不安;中段速度转快,出现悲痛的第二主题,它化解为明朗后再复归第一主题。
 
Life and career
Frédéric François Chopin born Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin,was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for the solo piano. He gained and has maintained renown worldwide as a leading musician of his era, whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation."Chopin was born in what was then the Duchy of Warsaw and grew up in Warsaw, which in 1815 became part of Congress Poland. A child prodigy, he completed his musical education and composed his earlier works in Warsaw before leaving Poland at the age of 20, less than a month before the outbreak of the November 1830 Uprising.
At 21 he settled in Paris. Thereafter, during the last 18 years of his life, he gave only some 30 public performances, preferring the more intimate atmosphere of the salon. He supported himself by selling his compositions and teaching piano, for which he was in high demand. Chopin formed a friendship with Franz Liszt and was admired by many of his musical contemporaries, including Robert Schumann. In 1835 he obtained French citizenship. After a failed engagement to Maria Wodzińska, from 1837 to 1847 he maintained an often troubled relationship with the French writer George Sand. A brief and unhappy visit to Majorca with Sand in 1838–39 was one of his most productive periods of composition. In his last years, he was financially supported by his admirer Jane Stirling, who also arranged for him to visit Scotland in 1848. Through most of his life, Chopin suffered from poor health. He died in Paris in 1849, at the age of 39, probably of tuberculosis.
All of Chopin's compositions include the piano. Most are for solo piano, though he also wrote two piano concertos, a few chamber pieces, and some songs to Polish lyrics. His keyboard style is highly individual and often technically demanding; his own performances were noted for their nuance and sensitivity. Chopin invented the concept of instrumental ballade. His major piano works also include mazurkas, waltzes, nocturnes, polonaises, études, impromptus, scherzos, preludes and sonatas, some published only after his death. Influences on his compositional style include Polish folk music, the classical tradition of J. S. Bach, Mozart and Schubert, the music of all of whom he admired, as well as the Paris salons where he was a frequent guest. His innovations in style, musical form, and harmony, and his association of music with nationalism, were influential throughout and after the late Romantic period.
Chopin's music, his status as one of music's earliest superstars, his association (if only indirect) with political insurrection, his love life and his early death have made him a leading symbol of the Romantic era in the public consciousness. His works remain popular, and he has been the subject of numerous films and biographies of varying degrees of historical accuracy.
Over 230 works of Chopin survive; some compositions from early childhood have been lost. All his known works involve the piano, and only a few range beyond solo piano music, as either piano concertos, songs or chamber music.
Chopin was educated in the tradition of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart and Clementi; he used Clementi's piano method with his own students. He was also influenced by Hummel's development of virtuoso, yet Mozartian, piano technique. He cited Bach and Mozart as the two most important composers in shaping his musical outlook.Chopin's early works are in the style of the "brilliant" keyboard pieces of his era as exemplified by the works of Ignaz Moscheles, Friedrich Kalkbrenner, and others. Less direct in the earlier period are the influences of Polish folk music and of Italian opera. Much of what became his typical style of ornamentation (for example, his ‘fioriture’) is taken from singing. His melodic lines were increasingly reminiscent of the modes and features of the music of his native country, such as drones.
Chopin took the new salon genre of the nocturne, invented by the Irish composer John Field, to a deeper level of sophistication. He was the first to write ballades and scherzi as individual concert pieces. He essentially established a new genre with his own set of free-standing preludes (Op. 28, published 1839). He exploited the poetic potential of the concept of the concert étude, already being developed in the 1820s and 1830s by Liszt, Clementi and Moscheles, in his two sets of studies (Op. 10 published in 1833, Op. 25 in 1837).
Chopin also endowed popular dance forms with a greater range of melody and expression. Chopin's mazurkas, while originating in the traditional Polish dance (the ‘mazurek’), differed from the traditional variety in that they were written for the concert hall rather than the dance hall; "it was Chopin who put the mazurka on the European musical map."The series of seven polonaises published in his lifetime (another nine were published posthumously), beginning with the Op. 26 pair (published 1836), set a new standard for music in the form. His waltzes were also written specifically for the salon recital rather than the ballroom and are frequently at rather faster tempos than their dance-floor equivalents.
 
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热门评论

  • A/C门洞

    A/C门洞(无风放筝)2013-05-15 01:51 赞(104) 弱(0)
    前无古人、后无来者——钢琴诗人肖邦
    肖邦的f小调《第二钢琴协奏曲》是献给他的女友康斯坦蒂亚的。“在我写这首协奏曲的柔板段落时,我满脑子想象的都是她的美丽形象。”

    《E大调练习曲》又叫《别离曲》。“这里面就是我的祖国。”

    乔治•桑点燃的爱情之火让肖邦的创作天才燃烧了起来。离开肖邦的乔治•桑还是乔治•桑,但如果没有乔治•桑的肖邦就不会是肖邦。

    肖邦和李斯特同时出现,才把钢琴拉上了乐器之王的宝座。

    《将A大调波洛奈玆舞曲》,听的不是波洛奈玆舞曲,而是一种寂寞。

    海涅:“肖邦既不是波兰人,也不是法国人,更不是德国人,他有更高贵的血统,他来自莫扎特、拉斐尔和歌德的国土
  • 绵城

    绵城2013-02-22 17:03 赞(34) 弱(0)
    只有充满灵气的手指才能弹奏肖邦,他是我心目中的神!
  • 赎罪_f

    赎罪_f( )2015-12-17 00:35 赞(30) 弱(0)
    多希望邦能多长寿几年,那样我们将会多了多少美妙的音乐,可是,对于一个浪漫主义者来说,39岁的生命又是这么的刚刚好。人的浪漫激情随着年龄的递增而递减,所以,所有的音乐就有且仅有这么多,所有这一切传奇的音乐。

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