Loading...

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart沃尔夫冈·阿马德乌斯·莫扎特

地区: Austria 奥地利
风格: 室内乐 / 重奏 Chamber Music, 歌剧 Opera, 西方古典 Western Classical Music, 古典主义 Classical period
档案:
小档案
中 文 名 沃尔夫冈·阿玛多伊斯·莫扎特 
外 文 名 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 
国    籍 神圣罗马帝国 
民    族 奥地利人 
出 生 地 奥地利-萨尔茨堡 
出生日期 1756年1月27日 
逝世日期 1791年12月5日(享年35岁) 
职    业 作曲家 
主要成就 欧洲最伟大的古典主义音乐家之一 
代表作品 《奏鸣曲》《协奏曲》《安魂曲》 
乐    派 古典乐派 
擅    长 交响曲、协奏曲、钢琴音乐、歌剧
 
艺人资料
沃尔夫冈·阿玛多伊斯·莫扎特(Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart,1756年1月27日-1791年12月5日),出生于神圣罗马帝国时期的萨尔兹堡。欧洲古典主义音乐作曲家。
1760年,莫扎特开始学习作曲。1763年至1773年,莫扎特随父亲列奥波尔得·莫扎特在欧洲各国进行旅行演出。1781年,莫扎特到维也纳开始10年的创作生涯。1791年12月5日0时55分,莫扎特逝世,享年35岁,死因不明。
莫扎特留下的重要作品总括当时所有的音乐类型。他谱出的协奏曲、交响曲、奏鸣曲、小夜曲、嬉游曲后来成为古典音乐的主要形式。
 
人物生平
1756年1月27日,莫扎特生于奥地利的萨尔茨堡一位宫廷乐师的家庭,原籍是德国,他的父亲列奥波尔得·莫扎特是那座城中宫廷天主教乐团的小提琴手,也是一位作曲家;母亲安娜·玛丽亚·莫札特也热衷于音乐并会拉大提琴和小提琴。莫扎特是家中最小的孩子排行第七。
1760年,4岁的莫扎特跟父亲列奥波尔得·莫扎特学习钢琴并开始作曲。
1762年,6岁的莫扎特在父亲的带领下到慕尼黑、维也纳、普雷斯堡作了一次试验性的巡回演出。
1763年6月至1773年3月,莫扎特与父亲先后到德国、法国、英国、荷兰、意大利等国进行为期十年的旅行演出。这次演出让莫扎特对当时最先进的意大利歌剧、法国歌剧、德国器乐等体裁都有了认识,还结实了J.C.巴赫、G.B.马蒂尼、G.B.萨马蒂尼等作曲家并学习到他们的作曲技术,这时的作品已经显示莫扎特创作体裁的广泛性和他对歌剧创作的兴趣。
1773年底,莫扎特与父亲返回萨尔茨堡。此时的莫扎特对自己卑微的奴仆乐师地位感到不满,为了争取人身与创作的自由,他经过激烈的斗争,终于在1777年9月获得大主教的同意,又随母亲进行了两年的旅行演出。为了另谋职位,以便永远离开萨尔茨堡,他先后在慕尼黑和曼海姆教学、演出,进一步加深了对不平等制度的认识和体会。在曼海姆时,他得到一些市民音乐家的帮助与同情,并接触到当时欧洲重要的曼海姆乐派,听到第一流管弦乐队的演奏。
1778年5月,莫扎特抵达巴黎,由于母亲病逝,加上未能谋到职位,于是在1779年1月返回萨尔茨堡。这一时期,莫扎特在曼海姆创作了2首长笛协奏曲、1首双簧管协奏曲、7首钢琴小提琴奏鸣曲、3首钢琴奏鸣曲,这些作品反映了曼海姆乐派的影响。
1780年,莫扎特完成歌剧《伊多梅纽》。这一时期莫扎特的作品严谨,在内容上反映了当时狂飙运动思潮的影响,在形式上出现了新的要素,如奏鸣曲式第一乐章的呈示部,出现了与第一主题相对比的第二(或更多的)主题在再现部中,常常改换主题出现的次序,有时对主题材料也进行了不同于呈示部的处理,在第一、二乐章间,有了强烈的力度对比,这些手法,增强了他的音乐作品的戏剧性,使“古典奏鸣曲式”进一步形成。
1781年6月,莫扎特再也无法忍受大主教的凌辱,毅然向大主教提出了辞职,成为欧洲历史上第一位公开摆脱宫廷束缚的音乐家,到维也纳谋生,之后他虽然名义上是一位自由作曲家,实际上仍然无力抗争封建社会对他的压迫。生活的磨难对他的思想和创作产生了深刻的影响,在维也纳的10年,成为他创作中最重要的10年。
1782年7月,莫扎特创作的《后宫诱逃》在维也纳布尔格剧院首演。
1784年,他参加了共济会,对它所宣扬的自由、平等、博爱的思想有强烈共鸣,并在这种思想的启示下创作新型作品。
1785年,一度倒闭了的维也纳民俗歌剧院开始恢复,莫扎特有了从事歌剧创作的机会,创作了一部喜剧型歌剧《剧院经理》。
1786年,创作歌剧《费加罗的婚礼》。
1787年,莫扎特完成歌剧《唐璜》。
1790年1月,莫扎特的歌剧《女人心》上演。
1791年,莫扎特创作歌剧《蒂托的仁慈》但未获成功。9月,完成最后一部歌剧《魔笛》。之后莫扎特开始创作大型宗教音乐作品《安魂曲》,于12月5日0时55分《安魂曲》还未完成莫扎特就离奇死亡,享年35岁,入葬于维也纳。
 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart(27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791)baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty.
At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position. He chose to stay in the capital, where he achieved fame but little financial security. During his final years in Vienna, he composed many of his best-known symphonies, concertos, and operas, and portions of the Requiem, which was largely unfinished at the time of his death. The circumstances of his early death have been much mythologized. He was survived by his wife Constanze and two sons.
He composed more than 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers, and his influence is profound on subsequent Western art music. Ludwig van Beethoven composed his own early works in the shadow of Mozart, and Joseph Haydn wrote that "posterity will not see such a talent again in 100 years".
 
1762–73: Travel
During Mozart's youth, his family made several European journeys in which he and Nannerl performed as child prodigies. These began with an exhibition in 1762 at the court of Prince-elector Maximilian III of Bavaria in Munich, and at the Imperial Court in Vienna and Prague. A long concert tour followed spanning three and a half years, taking the family to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London,The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zurich, Donaueschingen, and Munich.
Mozart wrote his first symphony when he was eight years old. It is probable that his father transcribed most of it for him.
During this trip, Mozart met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach, whom Mozart visited in London in 1764 and 1765. The family again went to Vienna in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768.
These trips were often difficult and travel conditions were primitive. The family had to wait for invitations and reimbursement from the nobility and they endured long, near-fatal illnesses far from home: first Leopold (London, summer 1764), then both children (The Hague, autumn 1765).
After one year in Salzburg, Leopold and Mozart set off for Italy, leaving Mozart's mother and sister at home. This travel lasted from December 1769 to March 1771. As with earlier journeys, Leopold wanted to display his son's abilities as a performer and a rapidly maturing composer. Mozart met Josef Mysliveček and Giovanni Battista Martini in Bologna and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. In Rome, he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere twice in performance in the Sistine Chapel and wrote it out from memory, thus producing the first unauthorized copy of this closely guarded property of the Vatican.
In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto (1770), which was performed with success. This led to further opera commissions. He returned with his father twice to Milan (August–December 1771; October 1772 – March 1773) for the composition and premieres of Ascanio in Alba (1771) and Lucio Silla (1772). Leopold hoped that these visits would result in a professional appointment for his son in Italy, but these hopes were never realized.
Toward the end of the final Italian journey, Mozart wrote the first of his works to be still widely performed today, the solo motet Exsultate, jubilate, K. 165.
 
1773–77: Employment at the Salzburg court
After finally returning with his father from Italy on 13 March 1773, Mozart was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo. The composer had a great number of friends and admirers in Salzburg and had the opportunity to work in many genres, including symphonies, sonatas, string quartets, masses, serenades, and a few minor operas. Between April and December 1775, Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five (the only ones he ever wrote), which steadily increased in their musical sophistication. The last three—K. 216, K. 218, K. 219—are now staples of the repertoire. In 1776 he turned his efforts to piano concertos, culminating in the E-flat concerto K. 271 of early 1777, considered by critics to be a breakthrough work.
Despite these artistic successes, Mozart grew increasingly discontented with Salzburg and redoubled his efforts to find a position elsewhere. One reason was his low salary, 150 florins a year;Mozart longed to compose operas, and Salzburg provided only rare occasions for these. The situation worsened in 1775 when the court theater was closed, especially since the other theater in Salzburg was largely reserved for visiting troupes.
Two long expeditions in search of work interrupted this long Salzburg stay. Mozart and his father visited Vienna from 14 July to 26 September 1773, and Munich from 6 December 1774 to March 1775. Neither visit was successful, though the Munich journey resulted in a popular success with the premiere of Mozart's opera La finta giardiniera.
 
1777–78: Journey to Paris
In August 1777, Mozart resigned his position at Salzburg and on 23 September ventured out once more in search of employment, with visits to Augsburg, Mannheim, Paris, and Munich.
 
 
Mozart became acquainted with members of the famous orchestra in Mannheim, the best in Europe at the time. He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber, one of four daughters of a musical family. There were prospects of employment in Mannheim, but they came to nothing,and Mozart left for Paris on 14 March 1778 to continue his search. One of his letters from Paris hints at a possible post as an organist at Versailles, but Mozart was not interested in such an appointment. He fell into debt and took to pawning valuables.The nadir of the visit occurred when Mozart's mother was taken ill and died on 3 July 1778. There had been delays in calling a doctor—probably, according to Halliwell, because of a lack of funds. Mozart stayed with Melchior Grimm, who, as personal secretary of the Duke d'Orléans, lived in his mansion.
 
1781: Departure
In January 1781, Mozart's opera Idomeneo premiered with "considerable success" in Munich.The following March, Mozart was summoned to Vienna, where his employer, Archbishop Colloredo, was attending the celebrations for the accession of Joseph II to the Austrian throne. Fresh from the adulation he had earned in Munich, Mozart was offended when Colloredo treated him as a mere servant and particularly when the archbishop forbade him to perform before the Emperor at Countess Thun's for a fee equal to half of his yearly Salzburg salary. The resulting quarrel came to a head in May: Mozart attempted to resign and was refused. The following month, permission was granted but in a grossly insulting way: the composer was dismissed literally "with a kick in the arse", administered by the archbishop's steward, Count Arco. Mozart decided to settle in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer.
The quarrel with the archbishop went harder for Mozart because his father sided against him. Hoping fervently that he would obediently follow Colloredo back to Salzburg, Mozart's father exchanged intense letters with his son, urging him to be reconciled with their employer. Mozart passionately defended his intention to pursue an independent career in Vienna. The debate ended when Mozart was dismissed by the archbishop, freeing himself both of his employer and his father's demands to return. Solomon characterizes Mozart's resignation as a "revolutionary step", and it greatly altered the course of his life.
 
1786–87: Return to opera
Despite the great success of Die Entführung aus dem Serail, Mozart did little operatic writing for the next four years, producing only two unfinished works and the one-act Der Schauspieldirektor. He focused instead on his career as a piano soloist and writer of concertos. Around the end of 1785, Mozart moved away from keyboard writing and began his famous operatic collaboration with the librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte. 1786 saw the successful premiere of The Marriage of Figaro in Vienna. Its reception in Prague later in the year was even warmer, and this led to a second collaboration with Da Ponte: the opera Don Giovanni, which premiered in October 1787 to acclaim in Prague, but less success in Vienna in 1788. The two are among Mozart's most important works and are mainstays of the operatic repertoire today, though at their premieres their musical complexity caused difficulty for both listeners and performers. These developments were not witnessed by Mozart's father, who had died on 28 May 1787.
In December 1787, Mozart finally obtained a steady post under aristocratic patronage. Emperor Joseph II appointed him as his "chamber composer", a post that had fallen vacant the previous month on the death of Gluck. It was a part-time appointment, paying just 800 florins per year, and required Mozart only to compose dances for the annual balls in the Redoutensaal (see Mozart and dance). This modest income became important to Mozart when hard times arrived. Court records show that Joseph's aim was to keep the esteemed composer from leaving Vienna in pursuit of better prospects.
In 1787 the young Ludwig van Beethoven spent several weeks in Vienna, hoping to study with Mozart.No reliable records survive to indicate whether the two composers ever met.
 
1788–90
Toward the end of the decade, Mozart's circumstances worsened. Around 1786 he had ceased to appear frequently in public concerts, and his income shrank. This was a difficult time for musicians in Vienna because of the Austro-Turkish War: both the general level of prosperity and the ability of the aristocracy to support music had declined.
By mid-1788, Mozart and his family had moved from central Vienna to the suburb of Alsergrund.Although it has been thought that Mozart reduced his rental expenses, research shows that by moving to the suburb, Mozart had not reduced his expenses (as claimed in his letter to Puchberg), but merely increased the housing space at his disposal. Mozart began to borrow money, most often from his friend and fellow Mason Michael Puchberg; "a pitiful sequence of letters pleading for loans" survives. Maynard Solomon and others have suggested that Mozart was suffering from depression, and it seems that his output slowed.Major works of the period include the last three symphonies (Nos. 39, 40, and 41, all from 1788), and the last of the three Da Ponte operas, Così fan tutte, premiered in 1790.
Around this time, Mozart made long journeys hoping to improve his fortunes: to Leipzig, Dresden, and Berlin in the spring of 1789, and to Frankfurt, Mannheim, and other German cities in 1790. The trips produced only isolated success and did not relieve the family's financial distress.
 
1791
Mozart's last year was, until his final illness struck, a time of great productivity—and by some accounts, one of personal recovery. He composed a great deal, including some of his most admired works: the opera The Magic Flute; the final piano concerto (K. 595 in B-flat); the Clarinet Concerto K. 622; the last in his great series of string quintets (K. 614 in E-flat); the motet Ave verum corpus K. 618; and the unfinished Requiem K. 626.
Mozart's financial situation, a source of extreme anxiety in 1790, finally began to improve. Although the evidence is inconclusive, it appears that wealthy patrons in Hungary and Amsterdam pledged annuities to Mozart in return for the occasional composition. He is thought to have benefited from the sale of dance music written in his role as Imperial chamber composer.Mozart no longer borrowed large sums from Puchberg, and made a start on paying off his debts.
He experienced great satisfaction in the public success of some of his works, notably The Magic Flute (which was performed several times in the short period between its premiere and Mozart's death) and the Little Masonic Cantata K. 623, premiered on 17 November 1791.
 
Final illness and death
Mozart fell ill while in Prague for the 6 September 1791 premiere of his opera La clemenza di Tito, written in that same year on commission for the Emperor's coronation festivities.He continued his professional functions for some time, and conducted the premiere of The Magic Flute on 30 September. His health deteriorated on 20 November, at which point he became bedridden, suffering from swelling, pain, and vomiting.
Mozart was nursed in his final illness by his wife and her youngest sister, and was attended by the family doctor, Thomas Franz Closset. He was mentally occupied with the task of finishing his Requiem, but the evidence that he actually dictated passages to his student Franz Xaver Süssmayr is minimal.
Mozart died in his home on 5 December 1791 (aged 35) at 1:00 am.
 
(更多)
关注TA 播放艺人电台

我来说两句

您需要登录后才可以留言,新用户 注册虾米帐号

热门评论

  • 怡然自得

    怡然自得2014-05-25 22:46 赞(770) 弱(0)
    “你喜欢的歌手Mozart又发专辑了。。。。。”
  • 麦格格 ☂MAGGIE

    麦格格 ☂MAGGIE(世事洞明皆学问 ◕‿-。...)2013-01-04 13:11 赞(208) 弱(0)
    哈!哈!虾米网“古典音乐”须要加强。在国外音乐网“古典音乐”一定是最受欢迎,最热门, 最受重视的,
    然而, 这里正好相反, 自己整理、搜寻吧,:‧\\\\( ̄▽ ̄)/‧:*°★

    ( 2015年始, 西洋古典音乐在虾米, 已有"惊天动地"的改革及提升, 可喜!可贺!2015/MAY/ 15)
  • 柒7qi

    柒7qi( )2012-10-06 15:05 赞(139) 弱(0)
    有曲子才奇怪 莫扎特又没有录过音...

896条简评

12345678 下一页 (第1页, 共896条)
Top
Host: , Process All 0.4035s Memory:5901.19k